Brain Attack : Stroke

A brain stroke is the same as a heart attack, which occurs when there is a problem with blood flow to a part of your brain. This can occur when blood vessels are blocked or blood vessels in your brain are blocked. Stroke is a life-threatening emergency and immediate medical care is critical to avoid permanent damage and death.

What is Stroke?

A stroke happens when blood flow to the brain is blocked. This prevents the brain from getting oxygen from the blood. Without oxygen and nutrients, brain cells begin to die within minutes. Sudden bleeding in the brain can also cause a stroke if it damages brain cells. A stroke is a medical emergency. It can cause lasting brain damage, long-term disability, even death.

 Stroke results from a sudden disruption of the blood flow to the brain and there are two major types of strokes, Ischemic stroke and Hemorrhagic stroke.

Human brain is a very needy organ and that`s why it requires a high blood volume. When the flow is disrupted like, for example in a case of a tiny blood clot travelling to the brain vessel and occluding it brain cells begin to die. This can happen within minutes from the blood flow disruption and that`s why stroke is an emergency.


There are two kinds of stroke-

  1. Ischemic stroke- The most common kind, caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain.
  2. Hemorrhagic stroke– This is caused by a blood vessel that breaks in the brain.


Symptoms of stroke are:

  1. Paralysis of the arm, face, or leg (especially on one side of the body).
  2. Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech.
  3. Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
  4. Dizziness
  5. Loss of balance or coordination
  6. Severe headache with no known cause

If you have any of these symptoms, you must get to a doctor quickly to begin treatment.

Risk factors-

  1. High blood pressure
  2. High cholesterol
  3. Heart rhythm problems
  4. Diabetes
  5. Smoking
  6. Birth control pills
  7. Smoking
  8. Previous stokes
  9. A high red blood cell count
  10. Lack of exercise
  11. Obesity
  12. Excessive
  13. Age above 55
  14. Genetics
  15. Extreme temperatures


Brain stroke is mostly caused by the clot in the artery supplying the brain, this is called ischemic stroke which contributes about 80% of the brain stroke. It can happen when there is hemorrhage, when a burst vessel leads to the leakage of the blood into the brain parenchyma this is called hemorrhagic stroke, it contributes to 20 percent of the brain stroke.

Prevention of stroke –

Lifestyle changes cannot prevent all strokes. However, many of these changes can make a significant difference in reducing the risk of stroke. These changes include:

  1.  Stop smoking– If you smoke, stop smoking today and reduce the risk of stroke. You can contact your doctor to establish a plan for cessation of smoking.
  2. Limit the use of alcohol– Drinking alcohol increases blood pressure, and the risk of stroke increases.
  3. You should keep a moderate weight– Overweight and obesity increase the risk of stroke. To help manage your weight, eat a balanced diet and often exercise. Both steps can reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
  4. Get regular checks– Talk to your doctor about the frequency of blood pressure, cholesterol and any other condition you may have. They can also support you in making these lifestyle changes and help you.

All of these measures will help you improve your condition to prevent strokes.

Diagnosis of stroke –

Your doctor may order various tests to further help them determine whether you’ve had a stroke, or to rule out another condition. These tests include:

  1. Blood Test
  2. MRI and CT Scan
  3. ECG
  4. Cerebral Angiography
  5. Carotid Ultrasound
  6. Echocardiogram


Identification of signs and symptoms of stroke early helps in making a bid difference in the treatment of stroke. Treatment include:

  1. Clot Breaking Drugs
  2. Stents
  3. Surgery
  4. Medication
  5. Clamping
  6. Anticoagulant
  7. Antiplatelet Drugs
  8. Blood pressure Drugs


A stroke is the brain version of a heart attack that threatens your life and becomes a critical medical emergency. Stroke is also sensitive to time and delays in care can cause permanent brain damage and death. The trauma can be frightening to those affected or for people nearby. However, the possibilities for treating strokes are increasing every day, if you notice symptoms of stroke, immediate medical care is crucial to you and to others.

Frequently Asked Questions-

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